PARIS — Who wears a tiara these days? Well, royalty, and brides, some debutantes and genuine aristocrats, actual or aspiring.
And then there’s the Chinese business owner who wanted to impress her staff. “She ordered a significant tiara to wear from time to time in business occasions, in front of a few hundred guys who were her sales people. Like an empress,” said Jean-Marc Mansvelt, chief executive of the French jewelry house Chaumet. "When you appear in front of a crowd you have to really wow them.”
He should know. Chaumet has been making tiaras for more than 200 years — the earliest existing documentation is for one made in 1811 — and it has models of some 3,000 examples in the archives. The house gained prominence in tiara territory when the Empress Joséphine commissioned hers from the house; soon all nobility was doing the same.
Joséphine’s husband, Napoleon, was, according to Mr. Mansvelt, a “marketing genius. He needed to legitimize his power” and one way of doing so was “using the symbols, the emblems, of history, of ancient Greece and Rome.” Consider Caesar, his head encircled in a wreath of laurel leaves.
Mr. Mansvelt is perfectly happy to discuss the history of the tiara: In France, they fell out of favor during the revolution; lost, he noted, “along with the heads that wore them.”
But then came the First Empire. The women in Jacques-Louis David’s famous painting of Napoleon’s consecration in 1804 wore tiaras.
As time passed, tiaras became lighter (“more of a question of look and fashion,” Mr. Mansvelt said) and, by the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century, had transformed into the aigrette, the sort of hair ornament Daisy Buchanan would wear, with a feather popping up in the front.
Then the tiara almost disappeared, whether thanks to the vagaries of fashion or the Depression or the wars or all of the above. But in the last few years, Mr. Mansvelt said, demand has started to rise again.
“Many people today are trying to find references in the past, looking for tradition,” he said. “They want a part of the ‘art of France,’ the way of living in France,” that famous art de vivre.
Of course, the tiara remains a show — and a showing off — of wealth. And it takes a lot: at Chaumet, a simple tiara might cost around 300,000 euros (0,835), and the price can rise quickly and steeply into the millions. But to maximize the use of such an investment, a tiara can be designed to be transformable (an enduring approach in haute joaillerie), with removable parts that can be worn as, say, a necklace or brooch.
Yet there’s another aspect of the special order today: The allure of the experience, the rising appeal of memories over material goods that is changing the face of modern retail and marketing. “Some very rich people just want to order a tiara for the pleasure of the creative process,” Mr. Mansvelt said, adding that they can be present from the first discussion, through sketches, stone selection, mock-up and fittings. The process can take as long as 18 months.
Chaumet produces about 10 tiaras a year, usually three for its high jewelry line and the rest for special orders. Often, Mr. Mansvelt said, the customers are parents ordering for their daughter’s nuptials — but one father was really planning ahead; he ordered a tiara for his daughter’s wedding although she was still a baby.
At the jewelry house’s headquarters, an 18th-century mansion on the Place Vendôme, there is a room lined with dozens of tiara prototypes made in maillechort, a metal alloy, and hand-painted to replicate gemstones. “People come here and they look at the mock-ups,” Mr. Mansvelt said. “It gets the conversation started.”
Sometimes customers arrive with a fixed idea. One woman, he said, “placed a special order for a tiara featuring a specific color green of gemstone because her feng shui master had told her she needed that color in her life,” Mr. Mansvelt said. “It can take months, years, to find colored stones that match.”
For that order, eight large tourmalines, in an almost milky green, were eventually located.
All the fabrication is done by hand, in the workshop. But as Chaumet’s business is thriving, the company is moving its business offices this month to new quarters on the Boulevard Hausmann. The shift is intended to free space for the Vendôme workshop, which now has 14 artisans squeezed into tight quarters at heavy wooden work stations equipped with tools that haven’t changed much since the Renaissance.
On one sunny February morning three tiaras were being worked on: two for the high jewelry collections, another for a special order. The workshop manager Benoît Verhulle (his official title: XIIIeme Chef d’atelier maitre-artisan en métier d’art) explained a small part of the process.
After showing a visitor a drawing of the tiara to be made, Mr. Verhulle pulled a thin but heavy sheet of white gold from a drawer and then displayed some slender pieces that had already been cut by hand, with a saw, from a similar sheet. “We give life to the metal,” he said.
Mr. Verhulle handed one of the metal pieces to Arthur (like most luxury companies, Chaumet will not provide the surnames of its workers), a young jeweler who has already had experience at Van Cleef & Arpels, Cartier and Chanel. Using a fine-point marking pen, Arthur drew black dots on the metal to show where the diamonds would be fixed.
There is an elaborate sequence of drilling holes for the gems and the repeated polishing of the holes by Clarisse, who uses a series of threads, rubbed with abrasive pastes, and finally buffs the entire piece with an instrument that looks like a shoeshine machine. There’s also gem selection and placement of the gems, and final finishing work. After a while, it’s clear why it can take more than a year to create each piece.
Forget the adage that a woman’s crowning glory is her hair. It’s her tiara.B:
六合无彩无间道客家【红】【玉】【没】【想】【过】【前】【脚】【说】【去】【闭】【关】【的】【大】【人】【没】【到】【一】【天】【就】【跑】【出】【来】【了】，【她】【也】【没】【想】【过】【身】【受】【重】【伤】、【不】【能】【动】【武】【的】【大】【人】【能】【一】【天】【把】【高】【级】【训】【练】【室】【弄】【废】。 【她】【先】【关】【闭】【了】【训】【练】【室】【外】【的】【警】【报】，【然】【后】【看】【着】【模】【样】【大】【变】【的】【泽】【思】【弦】。 【泽】【思】【弦】【的】【样】【子】【触】【目】【惊】【心】，【衣】【服】【上】【全】【是】【血】，【这】【些】【血】【已】【经】【半】【干】，【有】【些】【已】【经】【成】【为】【了】【黑】【色】，【但】【她】【身】【上】【却】【没】【有】【半】【点】【伤】，【像】【是】【刚】【完】【成】【百】【人】
【只】【将】【他】【们】【禁】【锢】【之】【后】，【凌】【羽】【白】【便】【是】【没】【有】【任】【何】【犹】【豫】【的】【重】【新】【转】【向】【了】【莫】【轻】【罗】。 【手】【中】【被】【提】【纯】【的】【灵】【力】【也】【是】【没】【有】【节】【制】【的】【朝】【着】【莫】【轻】【罗】【输】【了】【过】【去】。 【偌】【大】【的】【魔】【灵】【军】【团】，【如】【今】【四】【分】【五】【裂】。 【其】【中】，【还】【能】【够】【隐】【约】【的】【看】【到】【有】【一】【部】【分】【的】【魔】【灵】【在】【生】【命】【属】【性】【和】【毁】【灭】【属】【性】【的】【加】【成】【之】【下】【直】【接】【化】【为】【了】【飞】【灰】。 【连】【挣】【扎】【都】【不】【曾】【有】【过】，【上】【位】【属】【性】【之】【下】，【一】【切】
【进】【入】【一】【月】【之】【后】， 【热】【火】【队】【延】【续】【了】【之】【前】【两】【个】【月】【的】【表】【现】，【战】【绩】【喜】【人】。 【孟】【云】【的】【发】【挥】【也】【很】【稳】【定】，【场】【均】20+10+8【的】【数】【据】。 【这】【还】【是】【因】【为】【热】【火】【队】【并】【不】【缺】【少】【出】【色】【的】【内】【线】，【怀】【特】【塞】【德】、【门】【罗】、【项】【龙】、【萨】【林】【格】、【内】【内】【都】【能】【够】【抢】【篮】【板】【球】，【如】【果】【不】【是】【这】【样】【的】【话】，【孟】【云】【的】【场】【均】【篮】【板】【可】【能】【就】【不】【是】【八】【个】，【而】【是】【十】【个】【了】。 【在】【热】【火】【这】【样】【的】【强】【队】，【还】
【李】【暖】【君】【终】【于】【是】【明】【白】【为】【什】【么】【没】【人】【敢】【走】【进】【这】【个】【店】【了】，【因】【为】【贵】【呀】，【贵】【地】【还】【没】【有】【一】【点】【商】【量】【的】【余】【地】！【咬】【牙】，【最】【后】【像】【是】【下】【了】【很】【大】【决】【心】【般】：“【行】【吧】，【是】【可】【以】【刻】【名】【字】【吗】？” 【导】【购】【员】【喜】【笑】【颜】【开】：“【对】【的】【呀】！【不】【过】【刻】【名】【字】【需】【要】【一】【点】【时】【间】【喔】！” 【李】【暖】【君】【看】【了】【看】【手】【环】：“【没】【问】【题】！” 【最】【后】，【导】【购】【员】【开】【单】，【李】【暖】【君】【付】【了】【定】【金】，【便】【算】【交】【易】【成】
【殷】【小】【曼】【其】【人】，【大】【有】【来】【头】。 【她】【阿】【娘】【年】【轻】【时】【身】【子】【不】【好】，【成】【亲】【数】【年】【才】【有】【了】【他】。 【那】【时】【他】【阿】【爹】【殷】【人】【离】【心】【心】【念】【念】【着】【想】【有】【个】【闺】【女】，【早】【在】【苦】【苦】【追】【求】【他】【阿】【娘】【时】，【便】【已】【想】【好】【了】【闺】【女】【的】【名】【字】。 【殷】【小】【曼】。 【后】【来】【辗】【转】【了】**【年】，【终】【于】【怀】【上】【了】，【连】【经】【验】【十】【足】【的】【助】【生】【婆】【都】【放】【出】【大】【话】，【此】【胎】【必】【然】【得】【女】。 【夫】【妇】【二】【人】【整】【日】“【小】【曼】”“【小】【曼】”
【一】【手】【拿】【着】【一】【大】【袋】【子】，【是】【三】【笼】【装】【到】【一】【起】【的】【小】【笼】【包】，【一】【手】【拿】【着】【一】【杯】【号】【称】【着】【石】【磨】【的】【豆】【浆】。 【走】【在】【了】【清】【晨】【深】【城】【小】【巷】【的】【中】【的】【宋】【勇】，【混】【杂】【在】【一】【众】【脚】【步】【匆】【匆】【的】【上】【班】【人】【群】【中】，【他】【在】【很】【快】【的】【数】【分】【钟】【时】【间】【里】，【就】【将】【早】【上】【的】【这】【顿】【早】【餐】【给】【草】【草】【的】【解】【决】【掉】【了】。 【然】【后】，【看】【着】【对】【比】【起】【原】【始】【时】【代】【位】【面】，【这】【个】【要】【热】【闹】【了】【无】【数】【倍】【的】【都】【市】，【宋】【勇】【大】【大】【的】【打】【了】【一】
【林】【帜】【莫】【名】【的】【鼻】【子】【一】【酸】，“【你】【只】【是】【跟】【我】【玩】【玩】【而】【已】？” “【不】【是】。”【单】【游】【伸】【手】【将】【他】【抱】【在】【怀】【里】，【下】【巴】【抵】【在】【林】【帜】【瘦】【削】【的】【肩】【膀】，【他】【感】【受】【着】【林】【帜】【身】【上】【温】【暖】【的】【体】【温】。 【半】【晌】【之】【后】，【他】【叹】【道】：“【宝】【贝】，【我】【比】【任】【何】【人】【都】【想】【要】【和】【你】【在】【一】【起】。” 【林】【帜】【背】【对】【着】【他】，【很】【久】【没】【出】【声】。 【单】【游】【以】【为】【他】【要】【睡】【了】，【扶】【着】【他】【躺】【下】【来】，【给】【他】【掖】【了】【掖】【被】【子】。